IFIP NEWSLETTER -- vol. 15, no. 1; March 1998


Computer Infrastructure for Education
Computer Society of Zimbabwe Activities
Network Information Processing Systems
Obituary: Dr. Kaoru Ando
Tutorials, Social Events, and Fees for IFIP Congress '98
IFIP Congress 2000
British Computer Society
IFIP Takes Major Role in UNESCO
Professor Wilfried Brauer Is Honored
Standards for Professional Qualification
Proposed IFIP Policy on Cryptography
Information Networks and Data Communication
Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems
Conference on Human Choice and Computing

Calls for Papers

TC3 Holds Conference in Zimbabwe on Building Computer Infrastructure for Education

Dr. Deryn Watson (GB)*

It is clear that developing countries experience problems of capacity and access in relation to physical infrastructure, skilled manpower, technology, and knowledge. These all hinder progress in the use of information technology (IT) in education. But it is also clear that many developed countries experience similar problems. In order to address these problems, the IFIP Technical Committee on Education (TC3) and three of its Working Groups (WGs) organized a working conference to bring together people from all environments to share and discuss the specific needs of developing countries.

One hundred twenty delegates from 33 different nations met in Harare, Zimbabwe, in the last week of August 1997 for the conference, entitled Capacity Building for Information Technologies in Education in Developing Countries -- CapBIT 97. Many of the delegates, from as far afield as Thailand and Namibia, Botswana and Nepal, China and Iceland, Nigeria and Australia, were attending an IFIP event for the first time. The conference was the subject of many TV and radio broadcasts in Zimbabwe and was featured in the main TV news on the first day.

Members of CapBIT 97 Program Committee in Harare, Zimbabwe, with Dir. Peter Bollerslev (IFIP President-Elect, second from left) and Mr. Geoff Fairall (Chief Executive of the Computer Society of Zimbabwe and former Vice-President of IFIP, third from right).

CapBIT addressed the whole education and training cycle -- from research, materials, and courseware development, delivery, records management, and testing to support and consultancy. The focus was on the environment in developing countries, where the physical and technical resource infrastructure poses particular challenges. The programme was built around 30 invited papers, from delegates representing a range of developed and developing nations, and ten discussion groups, which met daily to share experiences and reflections on needs and practice. By the end of five days, these groups had produced a series of reports and recommendations for strategic planning at national and regional levels.

A particular feature of these reports was the emphasis placed on professional development and networking during, rather than after, the development of technical infrastructures. The experience of many from the more developed nations was that failure to incorporate curriculum and professional concerns into policy initiatives contributed to a lack of success. The conference was addressed by the Minister for Education of Zimbabwe, who was most interested to see the initial suggestions from the panels posted up in the information market place. We concluded with a panel where members from a number of donor agencies, including UNESCO, discussed with delegates the issues that influence their support for IT projects in education in developing countries.

A Milestone

This conference was a milestone in many ways -- it was the first time a TC3 working conference had taken place in the developing world and the first time that three TC3 WGs (those for IT in elementary, secondary, and professional and vocational education) had joined forces to mount an event. All three WGs held their annual general meetings during the conference, and TC3 met in Harare the weekend before. Two distinguished members of IFIP were able to attend the TC3 meeting -- Mr. Geoff Fairall (ZW), former vice-president of IFIP and chief executive of the Computer Society of Zimbabwe, and Dir. Peter Bollerslev (DK), former chair of TC3 and currently president-elect of IFIP.

The International Program Committee and Organizing Committee chairs of the conference were Dr. Deryn Watson (GB) and Mr. Arthur Sithole (ZW), respectively. It is our intention that the proceedings, edited by Dr. Gail Marshall (USA) and Prof. Mikko Ruohonen (FI) and published by Chapman & Hall, be a benchmark publication, containing as it does the papers and discussion groups' reports from this unique event. This will be the tangible outcome to add to the networks built up during such an enjoyable week.

This report of the hard work undertaken appears rather dry in comparison with the lively atmosphere and fun experienced during the five days. Our local hosts, the Computer Society of Zimbabwe, looked after us very well, ensuring that we danced as well as worked. Many new friendships were formed, and the atmosphere ensured that personal networks developed that will last long beyond the conference itself.

Thank you, Computer Society of Zimbabwe.

<Mr. Fairall added the following postscript to this report. -- Editor>

The Computer Society of Zimbabwe planned events before and after the main working conference, which we called the "Outreach" programme. Our intention was to take some of the visiting expertise into the field, away from the capital city, Harare, into smaller urban or rural centres, giving benefit to people unlikely to participate in Harare, and at the same time offering some of our visitors an opportunity to see a different part of Zimbabwe. Despite the logistical difficulties faced, we were able to organise three successful outreach events -- two one-day workshops before CapBIT and one after. One of the two pre-conference events was held in the small midlands city of Gweru and the other in the rural town of Bindura, both a considerable distance from Harare. Some of the international CapBIT speakers participated at both centres. The post-CapBIT event, in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe's second city, was led by Dr. Watson.

* vice-chair of IFIP Working Group 3.1, chair of the CapBIT International Program Committee

Activities of the Computer Society of Zimbabwe

by Mr. Lawrence Gudza (ZW)*

<During the meeting of the IFIP Marketing Committee in September, Mr. Lawrence Gudza, IFIP representative of the Computer Society of Zimbabwe and its president, described some of the Society's activities. They sounded so interesting that we asked him to write an article about them, which we print here. -- Editor>

The Computer Society of Zimbabwe (CSZ) has three major activities in its annual calendar of events: the Summer School, Information Processing Business Workshops, and "Microcom." These activities have different focuses, but the two common objectives are informing and encouraging the use of Information Technology (IT).

Annual Summer School

The Society regards this activity, targeted solely at the CSZ membership, as its flagship event for the following reasons:

Information Processing Business Workshops

The Workshops are based on the realisation that most of our members are being promoted from their technical areas to managerial positions, without prior managerial knowledge or experience in the following key areas: time management, stress management, resource management, financial management, human-resource management, and project management. The Society came up with these Workshop events in order to bridge this gap and, in addition, to provide a means for continuous professional development for our members. We also recognise that while some members are about to enter management, others are already in management, so we have designed the programme to address these categories separately, in the form of Workshops I and II.

The format of these is project-oriented. Presenters are drawn from consulting houses, human-resources organization, finance, management, IT practitioners, and universities, and each presenter has four hours to present and facilitate discussion sessions on case studies. To provide an opportunity to practice skills learned, a business-management game is used to simulate a real environment, with participating teams competing for a Society trophy. The names of the winners are published in our local computer publications. While these workshops are held in relaxed atmosphere, they are actually stress-oriented, in that the facilitator at these workshops introduces "unexpected real-life problems." A lot of lessons have been learnt through this practice, which hammers home that: a) the participants can win only as a team and not as individuals, b) they need to do resource planning and management, c) the essential success in what they do lies in time management, and d) because of all the different chores that they need to resolve in a day, they need to learn stress management.


This is held annually in Bulawayo. In coming up with this event, the Society felt that there was no forum at which individuals or companies who were thinking of computerizing for the first time could exchange views and ideas with "experts." Consequently, the Society runs this event. Resource people are drawn from consulting houses, IT practitioners, and universities. It is a very basic "how to" and "what to" event.

* president of CSZ and its representative to the IFIP General Assembly

Symposium on Network Information Processing Systems Was Held in Bulgaria Last October

by Prof. Kiril Boyanov (BG)*

The fourth IFIP symposium on Network Information Processing Systems was held from 14 to 16 October 1997 in Sofia, Bulgaria, organized by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and sponsored by the IFIP Technical Committee on Communication Systems (TC6), with financial support from the Open Society Foundation. The major topics of the symposium were Network Standards and Protocols, Network Management, Network Interconnection and Network Applications, Broadband Networks, and Wireless Communications. There were participants from more than 18 countries, including the following Central and Eastern European nations: Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Romania, and Russia.

The symposium was opened by high-ranking Bulgarian officials, followed by a short speech by Acad. Blagovest Sendov (BG), a former president of IFIP.

Prof. Spaniol (D, right) receiving medal from Prof. Boyanov (BG, left) at NIPS Symposium.

In a festive atmosphere, Prof. Otto Spaniol (D), then the TC6 chair, was presented the highest award of the Academy, the Marin Drinov Medal, after which he presented a keynote speech, Networking in the Nineties: Many Surprises and Some Explanations, which was met by great interest from the audience of more than 300 people. Following is a very brief summary:

The history of mankind is full of speculations that appeared to be evident but which turned out to be absolutely wrong. Two well-known examples are the following: a) the main use of the telephone system will be the transmission of music, i.e., to bring opera to the home; and b) the need for electronic computers worldwide will remain limited to a maximum of three or four (with the performance of 1950). It appears that the number of questionable or incorrect prognoses in the networking area follows this "tradition." We observe greater and more expensive misbeliefs than before. Several examples of that are given in the paper. It is not difficult to give many reasons why these surprises have happened and why they were unavoidable. A much more difficult task is to give correct predictions so that similar mistakes can be avoided.

The session ended with a demonstration of some results from the EC-sponsored WATT project.

The proceedings of the symposium, published in Bulgaria, include 25 papers, selected by the International Program Committee from the 45 works submitted. Some of the papers covered theoretical issues, while others focused on results and applications.

The symposium was viewed with significant interest by the scientific community in the area of computer networks and telecommunications and was covered by Bulgarian TV and newspapers.

* member of TC6 and chair of the Symposium International Program and Organizing Committees

Dr. Kaoru Ando

11 May 1914 - 20 November 1997

A Tribute

I regret to announce the passing of Dr. Kaoru Ando in November, at the age of 83. He was formerly president of IFIP, director and member emeritus of the Information Processing Society of Japan (IPSJ), executive director of Fujitsu Limited, and president of Fujitsu FACOM Information Processing Corporation.

In his lifetime, he held a point of view and an abundance of experience that could be termed nothing less than "global," making him something of a rarity among his contemporaries. In 1937, after graduating from the Department of Management Studies of Indiana University in the U.S., he joined the Watson Statistical Accounting Machines Corp. of Japan (now IBM Japan Ltd.), where he was involved in the sale of punched card systems. Immediately following the end of the Second World War, Dr. Ando became a consultant to the General Headquarters of the Allied Powers in such areas as social statistics, economic statistics, and social analysis and simulations.

He then returned to IBM Japan Ltd. and helped launch the Japanese general-purpose-computer business. Following this, he became an executive director and served as a special advisor to IBM Asia Ltd. After joining Fujitsu FACOM Information Processing Corporation in 1966, he was broadly successful in the information processing industry, not only in Japan but also on an international scale. In the autumn of 1974, he was awarded the Medal with Blue Ribbon from the Japanese Government for his contribution to industrial computerization in Japan.

In 1977, the IPSJ appointed him to be the Japanese representative to IFIP, and during his first General Assembly, he was elected IFIP trustee. The next year, he was elected vice-president, and in 1983 he became the first Japanese president of IFIP.

Following this successful career, he was quite active as the chairman of the international committee of the IPSJ.

While meeting his obligations in the highly responsible role as president of IFIP, Dr. Ando was also involved in establishing and running such international organizations as the Japan-America Institute of Management Science (JAIMS). His work helped to encourage more internationally oriented viewpoints and attitudes among the people in the Japanese information processing industry.

With his great, magnanimous personality, Dr. Ando advocated, from early on, the importance of information literacy and cross-cultural understanding -- through IFIP, JAIMS, and his personal computer network. I cannot help but admire him all the more for the visionary ideas he shared with us.

Dr. Ando worked very hard to realize the information processing society of the future. He was a global citizen about whom Japan could proudly boast, and a man who was still very much needed by his country. I regret that the world will no longer be able to benefit from his contributions to the information industry.

Takuma Yamamoto President Emeritus, Fujitsu Limited


Some Personal Remembrances

With the death of Dr. Kaoru Ando, Japan lost an effective spokesman and representative, IFIP lost a distinguished alumnus, and we who knew him lost a friend.

Although a man's legacy is often measured in terms of material success and public acclaim (and on this basis, Kaoru Ando ranked well), perhaps more important are issues of family and children and the esteem and respect of those who knew him -- and on that basis, Dr. Ando ranks at the top.

Dr. Ando started his career focused primarily on moving his country forward in computer technology. He described his job change of years ago, from a senior position with an American computer company to a position of responsibility with a Japanese company, in patriotic terms: that the opportunity was presented to him to do "what was good for the country." In a society where employment changes were almost never made, this was a major event.

But as time went on, he became increasingly involved in the international aspects of computer technology. He had deepseated convictions as to the importance of international cooperation. His basic abilities, coupled with his proficiency in the English language, qualified him uniquely as a spokesman and representative. Through IPSJ, he became the delegate to IFIP, which led eventually to his election as an IFIP President.

Some fundamental differences in approach soon surfaced, because his roots were in a consensus-driven society, where decision-making was a building process, an approach different from the confrontational behavior often found in Western organizations. He and I had many discussions about these differences, and even as he made progress in learning the art of working with a varied and colorfully different international General Assembly, it distressed him that the bounds of courtesy and consideration were sometimes less evident than he would have liked. He was, at all times, a gentleman ... and a gentle man. Perhaps the General Assembly recognized his dedication to the "high road" he traveled by voting him an Honorary Member soon after he finished his term as President.

He came to IFIP with the charter of raising the level of Japan's support and commitment to IFIP, and he was instrumental in overseeing the reorganization of IPSJ into Technical Committees that directly mirrored the IFIP organization. I believe that this was the first instance of a national society so strongly aligning itself with the IFIP structure.

In recent years, Dr. Ando and I met frequently, usually for dinner during my business trips to Tokyo. On one occasion, we met soon after his wife, Ayako, who usually accompanied him to the major IFIP events, had passed away. This was, of course, a major loss. They were a devoted couple. While he had the dedicated support of his children and grandchildren, he preferred to maintain his independence. Even so, it seemed to me, in subsequent visits, that he seemed progressively more frail and detached.

Dr. Ando accomplished much in his lifetime, for his country and also for the international community. Yet, there were aspirations and hopes and dreams not fully realized. He wanted to do more, and I believe he was successful in communicating these unrealized objectives to his colleagues, in industry as well as in IPSJ. So, even as we celebrate his considerable accomplishments, we should also remember him for what he stimulated others to do. This is his legacy ... to his beloved country and to the world at large.

Good-bye, old friend. We miss you now, and will miss you in times ahead.

Richard I. Tanaka IFIP Honorary Member IFIP President: 1974-1977 U.S. Representative: 1969-1979

Tutorials, Social Events, and Fees Are Announced for IFIP Congress '98

Within the next few weeks, the program for the 15th IFIP World Computer Congress (31 August - 4 September 1998 in Vienna and Budapest) will be available both on the Web and in a printed version. (Addresses can be found at the end of this article.) The International Program Committees of the seven component conferences of the Congress have been reviewing a large number of papers and poster presentations and setting up the different tracks and sessions, with invited speakers, the presentation of submitted contributions, and plenary sessions. The seven conferences of IFIP Congress '98 are as follows:

Renowned Keynote Speakers

The International Program Committee for the Congress has already announced the names of keynote speakers and the tutorial program for the Congress, as well as other information of interest to potential delegates.

Keynote speaker Prof. Yunhe Pan (PRC)

As mentioned in the September 1997 IFIP Newsletter, each Congress day will start with a keynote presentation, by a renowned speaker, to the participants of all conferences:

Monday, 31 August 1998: Dr. Gordon Moore (USA)
Tuesday, 1 September 1998: Prof. Yunhe Pan (PRC)
Thursday, 3 September 1998: Dr. George Metakides (GR)
Friday, 4 September 1998: Prof. Andries van Dam (USA)

Tutorials and Workshops

The tutorial program in Vienna on 30 August (Sunday) is as follows:

Electronic Commerce by S. H. von Solms (ZA)
Collaborative Technologies by Lisa Neal (USA)
Building Usable and Useful Tools for Software Maintenance and Evolution by Anneliese von Mayrhauser (USA)
Document Design, Document Markup, and the Converging Worlds of Computer Typesetting and Electronic Publishing by Philip Taylor (UK) and Jiri Zlatuska (CZ)
Formal Software Engineering: From Domain Engineering via Requirements Engineering to Software Design -- a Formal Specification and Design Calculi Approach by Dines Bjørner (DK)

Workshops will also be held before and after the Congress. There will be two categories of workshops: the component conferences of the Congress have announced workshops on relevant topics; in addition, workshops with topics of general interest will be organized in both Vienna and Budapest. Details will be available via the Congress home pages.


The tutorial fees will be the very low amount of 600 ATS per tutorial for registered Congress delegates and 3600 ATS for others. (ATS == Austrian shillings; on 26 January, $1 US = 12.6 ATS, 1 pound UK = 20.7 ATS.)

The registration fees (in ATS) for the Congress have also been announced:

                        Before    After 
                        12 June   12 June 
    Members *           6700      7700 
    Students            3300      3800 
    Others              7500      8500 

* Individuals belonging to Member societies of IFIP or CEPIS.

An additional 5% discount from the early registration fee is offered to those who register before 10 April. For speakers and participants from developing countries or countries with emerging economies, special funds will be provided, on request. E.g., organizers have received a grant from the European Union to support speakers and participants from Eastern European countries and developing countries in the Mediterranean area. Also, a special discount is offered for groups.

In addition to permitting the delegate to attend plenary sessions and sessions of all the individual conferences, the registration fee includes the printed proceedings of the conference the delegate has registered for, a CD-ROM with the proceedings of all conferences, and coffee-break refreshments on all Congress days.

Social Events

The registration fee also includes the cost of the following social events:

For accompanying persons, these events will be available for a fee of 1400 ATS. Please contact the organizers for details.

Contact Information

For the latest and continuously updated information about the Congress and its associated events, please refer to the Web page at

http://www.ocg.or.at/ifip98.html   or http://www.njszt.iif.hu/ifip98.html  

On-line registration is provided on a secure server under


or contact the organizers at the following locations:

Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft
(Austrian Computer Society)
Wollzeile 1-3
A-1010 Wien, Austria
tel: +43 1 512 02 35, fax: +43 1 512 02 35 9
e-mail: ifip98@ocg.or.at
WWW: http://www.ocg.or.at


John v. Neumann Computer Society
Bathori u. 16
H-1054 Budapest, Hungary
tel: +36 1 33 293 49, fax: +36 1 13 181 40
e-mail: ifip98@neumann.hu
WWW: http://www.njszt.iif.hu

Plans Are under Way for IFIP Congress 2000

IFIP Delegation Visits China

by Mr. Plamen Nedkov*

An IFIP delegation, comprising President Kurt Bauknecht (CH), President-Elect Peter Bollerslev (DK), Publications Committee Chair Roger Johnson (GB), and Executive Director Plamen Nedkov, visited China to meet on 14 and 15 December 1997 with leaders and senior representatives of the Chinese hosts of IFIP Congress 2000: the Chinese Institute of Electronics, the Chinese Computer Federation, and the Chinese Communication Society.

The consultations demonstrated the strong intent of both sides to energize Congress 2000 preparations. The 16th IFIP World Computer Congress, endorsed and supported by the Chinese government and leading national institutions, will take place 21-25 August 2000 in the Beijing International Convention Center under the general theme "Information Processing: Beyond the Year 2000." It will convene as an umbrella organization of pre- and post-Congress tutorials, exhibitions, technical visits, and eight parallel conferences in the following fields:

Computer Applications in Manufacturing and Management
Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks
Communication Technologies
Signal Processing
Software: Theory and Practice
Integrated Circuit CAD and Application-Specific Integrated Circuits
Computers in Education
Computer Security

The conferences will be co-chaired by IFIP Technical Committee (TC) representatives and Chinese specialists. IFIP TCs are encouraged to take an active role in the program and conference design, which is intended to reflect regional priorities and geared towards world issues.

A representative Chinese delegation will attend the March 1998 IFIP Council in Manchester, U.K., to consult with IFIP officials, committees, and TC chairs on issues relating to program design and co-chair appointments, and to report to Council on progress. It is the intention of the IFIP president to appoint a new Congress 2000 International Program Committee (IPC) chair during Council '98.

IFIP delegation and Chinese hosts in Beijing. Front row, from left to right: Prof. Sha (Congress OC chair), Mr. Nedkov (IFIP Executive Director), Prof. Yang (Congress IPC Vice-Chair), Prof. Bauknecht (IFIP President), Prof. Sun (CIE President), Dir. Bollerslev (IFIP President-Elect), Prof. Yan (IFIP Trustee)

The IFIP delegation visited the Congress locale and the onsite hotel facilities and was pleased to observe the advanced technological and service infrastructure. These facilities, along with the strong cultural attraction, the Chinese hospitality, and the organizational commitments of our hosts, will be important factors for a successful IFIP Congress 2000.

* Executive Director of IFIP

British Computer Society

by Dr. Roger Johnson (GB)*

The British Computer Society is celebrating its 40th birthday. From its inception, it has combined the role of being both a learned and a professional society. It has sought to provide leadership to a profession that, collectively, is permanently transforming our society and doing it in a timescale far quicker than the last great changes of the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries. While focused primarily on the UK, the BCS has always been active internationally, through both formal and informal relationships. The BCS was a founder member of both IFIP and, more recently, the Council of European Professional Informatics Societies (CEPIS). With 35,000 members it is much the largest society in Europe.

For the past decade, the BCS has committed itself to promoting informatics as an engineering activity. Building largescale, integrated information systems is a skilled and challenging profession in the heroic engineering tradition more readily recognised by the public in the great structures of the later industrial revolution. With greater public understanding will come public support for the insistence of the BCS on high professional entry standards as a necessary guarantee of the public interest and the profession's good standing.


The BCS membership structure covers both professionals and non-professionals and includes 10,000 student members. However, the strength of the society is in the 20,000 people in its three professional grades. Associate Member, Member, and Fellow are open to those suitably qualified on the basis of academic achievement, training and experience. The length of training and experience depends upon the level and informatics content of the academic qualification held, but the minimum requirement for Member grade is two years' postuniversity training plus two years' relevant experience. Working in informatics at the end of the 20th century is a rare privilege because of our ability to transform the world we live in. However, that power to change needs to be exercised in a disciplined manner. No other industry is so international. Software specified in one country can be written in another and run on machines in a third by users in a fourth. The BCS believes that if humanity is to enjoy the benefits of high-quality information systems, it is essential to achieve high professional standards worldwide. The BCS invites all its fellow member societies in IFIP to join it in that important endeavour.

Professional Formation and Career Development

The BCS has accredited university courses for many years, ensuring that each course is a suitable blend of engineering skills with scientific knowledge. As our profession has matured, the BCS has stressed the need for lifelong career development. This has been promoted through what is surely one of its greatest single successes -- the Professional Development Scheme and the Industry Structure Model (ISM). Through the European Informatics Skills Structure, which was developed from the ISM, it continues to spread around Europe, Canada, and elsewhere, having been translated into five other European languages.

Learned Society

The BCS has always recognised up-to-date technical expertise as essential for its members. The BCS currently has over 50 specialist groups bringing together individuals with a shared interest in some aspect of our technology or its application. They are a reflection of the ever-changing pattern of our industry, with old groups withering away as new ones rise to support new interests.

At the frontiers of knowledge, the Computer Journal is the leading European academic informatics journal, supported in recent years by other more specialised journals. Access to more general technical knowledge has been provided in a number of ways, including the Computer Bulletin magazine and the Practitioner book series. Over five years, this series has sold almost 60,000 copies from its list of 30 titles.

The BCS Awards provide an annual celebration of success by our profession and reach their 25th birthday this year. In a profession where the weekly trade press enjoy knocking the small minority of failures, the BCS has chosen three projects each year that the selection panels have decided reach a special level of attainment.

The Future

Let me conclude by looking forward briefly. If you have surfed the Web, you may have seen how the BCS has successfully adopted the new technology. The WWW pages provide visibility for the BCS message. The BCS is widely accepted as the leading informatics society in the world on professional issues. We will continue to offer leadership in how our ideals can be taken up by other societies.

The BCS is pleased to welcome the IFIP Council to Manchester for its March 1998 meeting.

* IFIP trustee and former president of the British Computer Society

IFIP Takes Major Role in UNESCO

by Mr. Plamen Nedkov*

The December issue of the IFIP Newsletter (page 1) reported that IFIP is now in formal consultative relations with UNESCO and outlined in broad terms the privileges and obligations of such a relationship. We report here further good news. Namely, on 21 November 1997, during the Extraordinary NGO-UNESCO Conference in Paris, IFIP was elected a member of the NGO-UNESCO Liaison Committee, a body of nine with the mandate to

This is another major recognition of IFIP as a leader in the field and is helpful in further promoting our visibility and our mission within the NGO community -- a powerful coalition of several hundred NGOs with thousands of national member organizations and millions of individual members worldwide. The IFIP community will be kept informed as the NGO-UNESCO Liaison Committee proceeds with its work.

In the meantime, we wish to encourage our Member societies to contact their National Commissions in order to investigate possibilities for support of IFIP events and other IFIP-related activities, with particular attention given to the needs of specialists and institutions from developing countries. A list of National Commissions of UNESCO, with detailed coordinates, is available from


Also, the IFIP Secretariat can provide addresses of other UNESCO units.

* Executive Director of IFIP

Professor Wilfried Brauer Is Honored by Friends, Colleagues, and Students

In November, Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Wilfried Brauer (D), an IFIP vice-president and a former chairman of the Technical Committee on Education (TC3), was feted by friends, colleagues, and students on the occasion of his 60th birthday. A book was published in his honor, and two seminars were held -- the first at the University of Hamburg and the second at the Technical University of Munich. The latter was opened by the President of the University and the Dean of the faculty. Short congratulations and presents were given by the IFIP president, Prof. Kurt Bauknecht (CH), the President of the German Informatics Society (GI), and others. The laudatory address was given by Prof. Grzegorz Rozenberg (NL), the predecessor of Prof. Brauer as president of the European Association for Theoretical Informatics (EATCS). All speakers also congratulated Ute Brauer, Prof. Brauer's wife, who not only supports him but also stimulates him, cooperates with him, and is active in the politics and management of science -- especially within GI and IFIP -- and in the support of young people, e.g., the informatics Olympiads. (She also served for several years as TC3 correspondent to the IFIP Newsletter.)

Prof. Wilfried Brauer

A highlight of the Hamburg seminar was the surprise presentation to Prof. Brauer of a book, Foundations of Computer Science: Potential, Theory, Cognition, published by Springer-Verlag as part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science series. The three editors, Christian Freksa, Matthias Jantzen, and Ruediger Valk, formerly assistants of Prof. Brauer, are now professors at Hamburg University. We quote here parts of their preface, which indicate the role Prof. Brauer has played in computer science in Germany.

Science has always been used both to explain phenomena in the world and to master everyday problems. A scientific approach to explaining the world and to solving real problems requires systematic foundations -- otherwise a field of knowledge should not be called a science.

Accordingly, computer science is motivated by the need to explain the nature of information, knowledge, computation, and computers. The field is also strongly influenced by technological progress and commercial impacts. More than in other disciplines, foundations are required to allow for systematic approaches, to introduce formal methods, to verify results, to integrate various fields of application, and last but not least, to operationalize the concepts developed. ...

By their contributions to this volume <49 papers by 70 authors>, the authors acknowledge the work of Wilfried Brauer on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday. Wilfried Brauer has devoted his scientific life to improving the foundations of computer science by opening up the view to new developments in the area and by critically reviewing the existing foundations. Having a background in pure mathematics (algebra and group theory), he belonged to the first authors contributing to the emerging field of computer science in the 1960s by publishing on the theory of finite automata (transition monoid, cascade decomposition). This work is documented in his well known monograph on automata theory published in 1984.

In the 1970s, Brauer pursued his scientific work by studying various types of (non-finite) automata and formal languages. In those days, he extended his field of interest to distributed systems, in particular to Petri nets. Already during his stay in Hamburg in the 1970s and early 1980s, and with enhanced emphasis after moving to Munich in 1985, he contributed to the foundations of artificial intelligence with numerous publications, ambitious research projects, and valuable advice to other researchers in the field.

From a methodological perspective, this research includes symbolic representation of knowledge and of processes as well as connectionist and neural net approaches. The topics treated include mathematical foundations and questions of theoretical language and knowledge processing. His interests reach all the way to the applications, for example, in medicine. Through these activities, Wilfried Brauer has helped improve the exchange between the theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence communities considerably.

Further publications of Wilfried Brauer deal with the future development of computer science and its potential, with its place in the landscape of sciences, with an appropriate name for the discipline, and with educational issues. Last but not least, Wilfried Brauer is well known in international and national organizations like IFIP (vice president), EATCS (president), and GI (former president). By his engagement in such organizations, he successfully contributed to making computer science a mature discipline.

Another important impact of Wilfried Brauer's work in the field is due to his students, about twenty of whom are professors today. Besides students, friends and colleagues have contributed to this volume, thus reflecting -- in some sense -- the impact of Wilfried Brauer's work in different areas of computer science.

We are grateful for the privilege of working with Wilfried Brauer and receiving his valuable advice. We congratulate him on his birthday and send him all our best wishes!

Work Continues on Standards for Professional Qualification

In 1994, Ms. Pat Glenn (CDN) encouraged IFIP to initiate work on the rationalization of international standards concerning the qualifications of professionals in the Information Technology (IT) professions. She argued that in this era of international treaties promoting free trade and free movement of workers from one country to another, the establishment of standards for the qualifications of professionals is very important. In response to her recommendation, the Technical Assembly created a task force on Harmonisation and Acceptance of International Standards for IT Professionals. Ms. Glenn led this activity and most recently reported on its progress to the 1997 IFIP General Assembly (GA) in Canela, Brazil, which indicated its desire that the project continue. The Executive Board decided to move the activity into TC3, the IFIP Technical Committee on Education. Mr. Ian Mitchell (NZ) has been appointed chair of a Working Party on Harmonisation of Professional Standards, which is to continue the work. In December, Mr. Mitchell sent a memorandum to all Member societies of IFIP, which requested the identification of individuals who would participate in the activity. In addition, the memorandum outlined the future activity of the Working Party. We print here most of that memorandum, because of its interest to the IFIP community.


The purpose of this work is to agree upon a document that clearly sets out the standards of tertiary education, experience or practice, ethics, and continuing education that a customer might expect from a practitioner offering services to the public. This document will then become a Standard in the sense of the ISO (International Standards Organisation), and the standards bodies within individual countries would adopt it. It is expected that the IFIP Member societies would administer it within their countries, giving the Member societies increased status and authority.

Why Have Professional Standards?

The long-standing professions such as accounting, medicine, and engineering have long had standards that enable a qualification gained in one country to be recognised in another. The benefits of this are that

This will ensure that the IT profession gains a reputation for competency and that individual practitioners can seek work in the international arena. It is expected that the standards set would be adopted as one level of standards for the Member society for their practitioner members and would be administered by the Member society. Please note that this activity is about practitioners. It is not about academics, who in general will be much more qualified but possibly in a narrow discipline; nor is it about school teachers, who in general will be qualified to teach rather than to develop IT systems; nor is it about users, who have input into the designs of computer systems but who do not construct them. Neither is it about electronic engineers, who design computers but who would normally be qualified as engineers. But of course the edges are "fuzzy."

The Survey

The following type of information is being gathered from Member societies:

Process Steps

  1. The process began with an invitation to put names on lists of participants in the Working Party.
  2. The preparation of the survey, which will be checked by a writing party and commentators.
  3. Dispatch of the survey to the primary contact list and three additional lists.
  4. The survey will be analysed and comments listed.
  5. The writing party will endeavour to clarify where consensus exists and where significant differences of view remain.
  6. The differences of view will be discussed by e-mail and at conferences, for two more iterations.
  7. The draft standard will be prepared and presented for acceptance at the 1998 GA in Budapest, Hungary.
  8. The draft standard will be handed over to the ISO.


The Working Party will function under the supervision of the chair of TC3, Mr. Brian Samways (GB). It consists of four persons, who will also form a writing party: Mr. Ian Mitchell as chair and as representative of the Asia-Pacific area, Joe Turner from the Americas, and Peter Juliff from WG3.4, who will handle curriculum issues. Mr. Chris Guy (ZA), an IFIP vice-president, will exercise a commentator's role, and Ms. Patricia Glenn will negotiate with the ISO and the WTO (World Trade Organization) and also exercise a commentator's role. The writing party will meet around March 1-5, 1998, in Manchester, U.K.; in Darwin, Australia, in July; in the U.S.; and just before IFIP Congress '98, in August.

Those interested in this activity are encouraged to contact Mr. Mitchell at ianm@ie3.co.nz . Please ensure that the words "Professional Standards" are in the subject line of all e-mail messages.

IFIP Policy on Cryptography Is Proposed

TC11 Produces Guidelines

The IFIP Technical Committee on Security and Protection in Information Processing Systems (TC11) presented a draft Statement on Cryptography to the March 1997 IFIP Council, the final version of which was endorsed by the TC in May. This document was then submitted to the September IFIP General Assembly (GA) for approval. By accident, no vote was taken to endorse the policy statement at the GA, so the decision will be deferred until the 1998 GA in Budapest. In the meantime, we print the draft statement here, in order that it can be considered by Member societies of IFIP in advance of the vote in the GA. (Preceding work on cryptography policy is described in the September 1996 IFIP Newsletter, page 4.)

IFIP TC11 Position on Cryptopolicies

  1. IFIP TC11 recognizes the highly important role of cryptographic mechanisms. In the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) and in Electronic Commerce, these mechanisms will influence acceptability, usage, and competitiveness.
  2. IFIP TC11 takes notice that for the convenience of discussion it is helpful to distinguish among the differing objectives for the use of cryptographic mechanisms -- preservation of confidentiality, provision of the ability to authenticate people/organisations, provision of the ability to prove the integrity/completeness of data, etc.
  3. IFIP TC11 is fully convinced that a range of cryptographic mechanisms are required to meet the security needs of the GII. Users may select the most effective for their specific purposes.
  4. At the same time, IFIP TC11 recognizes that cryptography is prone to potential abuse by criminals. In this context, law enforcement also plays an important role, and we face the situation that different countries exhibit different attitudes.
  5. Being aware that responsibilities for crime prevention and detection lie with national governments and that business is less and less related to national borders, IFIP TC11 recognizes that cryptographic services and cryptographic applications cannot be bound to a nation's territory.
  6. IFIP TC11 recognizes the technical consensus that forbidding or restricting the use of strong cryptography is ultimately unfeasible, from a technical standpoint.

Taking the above said into account, IFIP TC11 takes the following position on the use and regulation of cryptography:

  1. Cryptography has equal impact and importance when data are stored or transmitted. A distinction is unrealistic in a world of networked computers.
  2. It is the prime goal that, whoever is involved in the process, cryptographic procedures and keys are handled in a way that full confidence of all partners, including the public at large, is assured.
  3. It is desirable that voluntary and free use be in place for all types of cryptography.
  4. While a business will generally take precautions to protect itself against lost/forgotten/stolen keys, such considerations should be carefully separated from the lawenforcement considerations, even though the mechanisms for each may be the same or overlap.
  5. When key-management and cryptography infrastructures are established, this should be primarily driven by the users' needs and not by regulatory requirements.
  6. Law enforcement shall not establish methods in the cryptography context that infringe on a citizen's expectations of personal privacy and integrity within a country.
  7. IFIP TC11 assumes that organised and major crime will successfully avoid or evade any requirement to comply with a key-deposit scheme. Law enforcers must therefore not rely primarily on key-deposit schemes when addressing the issue of criminal intelligence gathering. Research should be conducted, which results in a set of appropriate, acceptable, and well focused alternative methods.
  8. In cases where keys are deposited at third parties, it is necessary that commercial and privacy interest as well as commercial liabilities be guaranteed in all phases. This is particularly necessary if such systems allow law enforcement to access data in clear or keys, under proper legal constraint.
  9. There is a great need that cryptographic methods and especially digital signatures be recognized by national and international law. Such recognition carries with it responsibilities for assuring availability of relevant keys throughout any legally specified retention period and liabilities for improper disclosure of or change to keys whilst they are being kept.
  10. Any legal or regulatory arrangement between two nations with respect to cryptography and access to relevant materials must be symmetric.

Conference on Information Networks and Data Communications to Be Held in Portugal in June

The trend towards integrated broadband communications is being fostered by continual advances in network technologies and architectures as well as by the ever-growing requirements from the users. In order to explore the issues involved in these developments, the IFIP Technical Committee on Communication Systems and the International Council for Computer Communication (ICCC) have organized the seventh Conference on Information Networks and Data Communications -- INDC'98, which will focus on the technical, social, economic, and political aspects that are shaping the present and the future of global communications.

Development in Base Technology

Advances in converging technologies (networking, computing, signal processing, etc.) have enabled a wide range of interactive services and distributed applications that will benefit from the new high-speed integrated networks. In such an environment, the production and testing of flexible and reusable software is of paramount importance. New architectures and service models are necessary to deal with the bandwidth and stringent quality-of-service requirements placed by real-time services and to manage network resources in an efficient way; they should also allow interworking with legacy networks and applications and seamless migration to integrated solutions. Conference papers in this area are expected to describe new technologies, test-beds, and field trials as well as results of basic research.

Policy on Security and Privacy

The many new, cross-sector alliances resulting from convergence are leading to pressures for the adoption of regulatory frameworks. Serious concerns have been raised about how, or even whether, to govern the nature of the content disseminated. Also, concerns over publishing and access rights to the new forms of media have been expressed. The conference will focus on policies in information technology, nationally or otherwise, in strategic terms, as they exist in different societies, in order to stimulate governments and industry into serious, well-structured action. Contributions may include studies on information technology and society; the impact on public administration; the consequences for national and international legal frameworks; economic, commercial, social, and ethical issues; case studies of governmental and industrial practices; and educational efforts.

New Ways to Work, Learn, Play, Trade, and Socialize

Convergence offers massive opportunities for the development of new services and the expansion of consumer choice, and is making possible changes in the way we work, play, trade, learn, and socialize. The outlook for new interactive services, such as interactive TV or selling via the Internet, is the subject of intense research and a multitude of field trials.

The Conference will be held 15-17 June in Aveiro, Portugal. Prof. Jorge Alves (P) is chair of the Organizing Committee, and Prof. Jose Ruela (P) is chair of the International Program Committee. For further information, please consult the World Wide Web page at


or contact

Mrs. Anabela Viegas
INESC, University of Aveiro
3810 Aveiro, Portugal
tel: +351 34 370503, fax: +351 34 370545
e-mail: anabela@inesca.pt

Conference on Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems Was Held in Germany

by Prof. Hartmut Koenig (D) and Prof. Kurt Geihs (D)*

Experts from 19 countries met from 30 September to 2 October 1997 at the Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus, Germany, to participate in the IFIP Working Conference on Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems -- DAIS'97 and to discuss challenges and solutions for the development of distributed applications in increasingly powerful communication networks. Sponsored by the IFIP Working Group on Architecture and Protocols for Computer Networks of the Technical Committee on Communication Systems, the conference was chaired by Prof. Hartmut Koenig (D) and Prof. Kurt Geihs (D). It continued two series of national German workshops that took place between 1993 and 1996. This year, the conference was organised for the first time under the auspices of IFIP.

DAIS'97 established a milestone, even in the preparations for the conference, by organizing one of the first online International Program Committee (IPC) meetings via the World Wide Web. A special review and voting system was implemented, which provided the review results of the submitted papers to all IPC members and gave them the opportunity to discuss these evaluations and to vote on the final conference programme. Thus, cost and time for travelling to an IPC meeting were saved. The majority of the IPC members, including participants from Australia, Japan, Hong Kong, Canada, and the United States, who would probably not have been able to travel to a PC meeting, participated in the online meeting.

DAIS'97 offered the 75 participants from industry and research an interesting programme, consisting of eight sessions, two invited talks, and a working session. In addition, exhibitions by two companies informed the participants about new products in the subject area of the conference.

The conference was opened with an invited speech by Prof. Dr. Samuel Chanson (HK), which was an overview of the development of Internet technology in Hong Kong -- an area that possesses one of the best communication infrastructures in the world. In particular, he reported on the activities of the Cyberspace Center which had, for instance, just introduced a video-on-demand service. Furthermore, he described the activities surrounding the introduction of Internet technology to mainland China. The second invited talk, by Dipl.-Ing. Heinz Diebold (D), discussed a new trend in telecommunication: Community Networking, in which modern telecommunication services can be used by individuals who are not computer specialists to optimally carry out group interactions. Another highlight of the conference was the working session on mobile agents, chaired by Prof. Kurt Rothermel (D). After a short overview of the state of the art given by the session chair, a lively discussion on hot research topics and open issues took place.

The contributions to the conference were thematically divided into sessions on management of distributed systems, mobile agents and Internet applications, CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture), language support for the design of distributed applications, and security and reliability aspects. Further, there were two sessions with short papers on ongoing projects. The presentations provided a broad opportunity for discussions, which continued during breaks and the evening events.

Because of the productive atmosphere during the conference, the international attendance, and the rapid technological progress, several participants suggested continuing the DAIS conference series. Consequently, it is planned to organise the conference on a two-year cycle. DAIS'99 will take place in Helsinki.

The proceedings of the conference, entitled Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems, edited by Prof. Koenig Prof. Geihs (D), and Dipl.-Inf. Thomas Preuss (D), have been published by Chapman & Hall.

* co-chairs of DAIS'97

Conference on Human Choice and Computing to Be Held in Geneva

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are major factors in stimulating global economical and social developments. Although some negative effects (e.g., unemployment and shift of work places, and reduced ability to enforce national laws) are widely recognised, the basic nature of this development has barely been understood. In order to gain understanding of this phenomenon, the IFIP Technical Committee on Relationship between Computers and Society and its Working Groups are organizing a conference, Human Choice and Computing (HCC) -- Computers and Networks in the Age of Globalization, to be held 26-28 August 1998 in Geneva, Switzerland. This will be the fifth HCC conference, the immediately prior one having been held in Dublin, Ireland, in 1990.

The Conference will analyse the effects ICTs have had so far and what impacts will likely be observed in the future. Based on analyses of developing ICT methods, including virtual reality, multimedia, and information infrastructures, the Conference will focus on international developments in labor and work throughout the world, the impact of ICTs on human rights, aspects of free flow of information, threats to information societies, and the development of criminal laws. Shifts of paradigms will be analyzed both from methodological view and with respect to historical perspectives.

Conference discussions will lead to a resolution concerning which essential topics should be further examined and publicly discussed, and which measures may help the international community in guiding ICT developments to best guarantee social consent and democratic control.

For further information, please see the HCC5 Web site:


or contact

HCC-5 World Conference
University of Lausanne
CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
tel: (+41-21) 692.3407, fax: (+41-21) 692.3404
e-mail: hcc5@hector.unil.ch

Calls for Papers

     Twelfth IFIP WG11.3 Work. Conf. on Database Security
     15-17 Jul 98, Chalkidiki, Greece
     papers due: 10 Mar 1998
     contact: Prof. Sushil Jajodia
     Mail Stop 4A4
     George Mason University
     Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, U.S.A.
     tel: +1 703-993-1653,  fax: +1 703-993-1638
     e-mail: jajodia@gmu.edu

     23rd IFAC/IFIP WG5.4 Workshop on Real Time Programming -- WRTP'98
     23-25 Jun 98, Shantou, Guandong Province, PRC
     papers due: 15 Mar 98
     contact: Prof. Lichen Zhang
     Institute of AI & PR
     Science Center, Shantou University
     Shantou, Guandong Province, P.R. of China
     tel: +86-754-2510000 ext. 33284,  fax: +86-754-2510654
     e-mail: lchen@mailserv.stu.edu.cn

Will  event  organizers please send calls for papers to both the IFIP Secretariat and the Newsletter editor. Note that calls cannot be listed in this column until the events have been approved by IFIP.